Social Bilingual La Mojonera: November 2015

The climate of Andalusia , like that of Spain, is included in the Mediterranean climate, in the temperate zone of the Earth, although closer to the tropics than to the Polar circle.

If Andalusia does not have the morphological complexities that it has, and it was not bathed by two seas, its Mediterranean climate could be said to be typical and would extend with minor modifications throughout Andalusia. But these factors, generate a great climatic complexity in Andalusia. The mountains represent an altimetric variation, barriers against winds, changes of orientation regarding types of weather and air masses, etc.

This makes us in Andalusia with a great diversity of climates: Mediterranean climate of subtropical, tundra type, clear oceanic influence, climates influenced by the Mediterranean Sea, etc. Each type of climate in Andalusia has different effects from one part to another in the region. Andalusia presents peculiar climatic features that are derived from the intervention in her of specific and own factors. These factors include, on the one hand, those linked to the mode of action of the atmospheric circulation in the specific area of ​​the region and, on the other hand, the geographical factors, among which relief plays the primary role, although the action of the surface nature, in which the alternation of seas and continents and the thermal contrast between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean are the key pieces, is not negligible either.

Morphological complexity generates great differences of altitude, from the 0 to the 3,500 msnm, reason why it is an important factor of climatic diversification. The relief influences from 4 points of view:

Large altitudinal differences. Temperatures decrease with height. Thus, they appear from subtropical climates to tundra climates.

Altitude generates changes in precipitation type. Snow is an important climatic element. For example, one factor to keep in mind is the permanence of snow on the ground.

Layout of the relief

The large Andalusian mountain ranges are climatically favorable. Andalusian mountain ranges open to the west where humid masses penetrate and the polar front, favoring the penetration of moist winds.

Barrier paper

> The windward-leeward opposition produces contrasts in the mountain slopes as they look at prevailing winds or turn their backs on them.

Contrast between solana / umbría

the north slope the days are shorter and the sunbeams fall more inclined. In the southern slope, there are more hours of sun, correcting the inclination of the sun rays generating higher temperatures.

All these types of factors come together giving rise to a greater variety of contrasts. Thus we have, for example, the union of solana and leeward on the shores of Almeria.

Existence of two distinct seas

The Atlantic Ocean and the sea Mediterranean are put in communication in the most southern end of Andalusia. But the communication is small enough for both air masses to maintain their independence.

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Climatic types in Andalusia

the Atlantic coast

The Atlantic Ocean coast of Huelva stretches from Huelva to Gibraltar.

The Atlantic Ocean softens temperatures throughout the year, cold and milder days. One of the most notable features is the high humidity of the environment.

Mediterranean subtropical climate

Mediterranean coastal areas of Andalusia, from Adra in Almeria to Gibraltar.

The Mediterranean Sea is the cause of the soft temperatures 12º of annual average, which together with the absence of frost justifies the name of Costa del Sol, and also explains the resentment of tropical crops such as pineapples, avocados, chirimoyas, etc. The hottest season is summer, with a medium-high temperature between 19º.

Rainfall is variable and relatively abundant, ranging from 400 to 900 liters per year and decreases as we move towards the east.

Mediterranean climate subdesértico

It extends along the Almerian coast. As its name indicates the main characteristic is the scarcity of rainfall, always lower than 300 liters per year, there are areas that do not exceed 200 liters per year. The maximum rainfall occurs in Autumn in the form of violent and torrential downpours, which deforestation of the area turns into fast and dangerous floods. The annual average temperature is the highest of Andalusia and the peninsula, with an annual average of 21º, the winter is very temperate 12º and the summer very warm 26º.

Sub-continental cold winters climate

Sub-continental climate of warm winters

It occupies the low and middle valley of the Guadalquivir to the border with the province of Jaén (part of Huelva, Cádiz, Málaga and Córdoba) Highlights:

  • Rainfall ranges between 500 and 700 liters a year with highs in spring and autumn.
  • an average annual high temperature (17º and 18º), with cool winters with an average of 9º without frost.
  • It has the warmest summer of all Spain. to be overcome in July and August the 30th.

    Mountain climate

    It occurs mainly in Sierra Nevada and its surroundings, always at altitudes more than 2000 meters. in this area the winters are very long and very cold; most of the precipitation occurs in the form of snow, covering the ground from October to April. Depending on the year these dates can be lengthened or decreased. On the contrary summers are very short and not very hot.