Romanico | Roman churches | Roman art in Spain

El ingeniero Dennis Hamilton y Ed Dearborn ingeniero jefe y director de ingeniería de WYFR Family Radio

El ingeniero Dennis Hamilton y Ed Dearborn ingeniero jefe y director de ingeniería de WYFR Family Radio


As you walk through the narrow streets of the city of Toledo, you can still breathe the magical substratum that has left the historic trace of the three religions of the book, as it is also evident in the legendary riverside towns of Mare Nostrum and others, that after the loss of their racial identity with the passage of time, tend to be scarce as we go inland. Its architecture, as well as the dispersed sculpture of some temples or the schemes of palaces and gates of the wall, form the essential characteristics of the art developed in the old capital of the Visigothic kingdom, that will continue its unstoppable evolution from the s. VII, until several hundred years later, under the protection of that crucible that impregnates its incontestable style. The three societies described (Jews, Muslims and Christians) will recreate the avatars of their forced-sometimes-collective coexistence in this magical city and as a direct consequence of these influences, it will be especially the Mozarabic art that will once again have its climax , after Alfonso VI reconquered Toledo in 1085. This is an important military victory that seeks to recover the dynastic rights of the Visigothic kingdom, which from its origins are attributed in inheritance the kings of Leon.The Visigothic style after domination shows the assimilation of various Islamic decorative motifs, and in architecture, perfection, or rather, the evolution of common forms, such as the Califal horseshoe arch and the vault of crucería Even those who emigrated to non-Islamic areas continued to produce Mozarabic style art and contribute to the spread of Arab influences in northern Europe. Many churches built in the style of the Mozarab monks that remained or migrated to the north of Spain between the IX-XI centuries, will re-launch its impressive architecture - known as Mozarabic repopulation - among which San Miguel de Escalada, near Leon. the best example, founded by the monks of Cordova and consecrated in 913. With regard to other constructive ornaments, we do not know in their amplitude that degree of implication on how they could influence their execution, the forms of exposition of the art of Islamic culture or which the two will be more influential; it seems to be undoubted that it will be in this way that Mozarabic art will become a synthesis of the two traditions, the Christian first visigodo and the Muslim later. The background theme of this autochthonous art is Christian, but the style shows the assimilation of Islamic decorative motifs and forms, including those few vestiges that emigrated to reconquered territory from other countries.

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In this way we will find in Toledo an art with signs of identity typical of this cultural mestizaje, consequently of little apparent impact in the Romanesque of the rest of Europe, but equally unnoticed today, will have its implication in the religious life, where a Mozarabic rite or Hispanic rite - collected in the Mozárabe Missal of Toledo by Canon Alonso Ortiz in 1499 -, in clear coexistence with the implantation of the preemienente Roman rite that Alfonso VI wants to impose on the city after its conquest, will acquire an unprecedented importance - as we will see - in the medieval liturgy; in keeping with the above, the preservation of the Mozarabic liturgy would have been maintained in the old capital, from the Visigothic kingdom until the nineteenth century, with a veiled observance in the other artistic manifestations, and from which we will unveil its impact on music and frescoes of the paintings of the church of San Román de Toledo, consecrated in 1221 by the first Archbishop Primado de Toledo, Don Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada, in whose time and influence of his power we will focus our work around the beautiful church object of our study.