Temperate Forest - WikiVisually

Distribución del pino negro

Distribución del pino negro

Temperate forests are those forests located in temperate zones of both hemispheres.


The temperate forest is very variable: in some places the deciduous trees predominate whereas in others the conifers are more common. There are also mixed forests with coniferous trees, deciduous broadleaf and evergreens with broad leaves. Temperate forests occupy areas with abundant precipitation and uniformly distributed and moderate temperatures with a marked seasonal pattern. The flora and fauna of temperate forests are very diversified, although many animals migrate or hibernate during the cold winter.

Depending on the type of vegetation they may be hardwood or coniferous:

  • Temperate broadleaved or broadleaved forest, which may have several subtypes depending on the climate:
    • Temperate deciduous or aestisilva forest with a humid, rainy continental climate in summer and very dry in winter
    • Mediterranean forest or durisilva, with Mediterranean climate, rainy in winter and dry in summer.
    • Wet temperate forest, also called laurisilva forest or temperate forest,
    • A montane or nimbosilva forest with a humid mountain climate, found in tropical and subtropical latitudes but with a temperate climate due to its altitude.
  • Temperate coniferous forest or aciculisilva, also called dry forest of co
  • Mixed forest , alternating deciduous hardwoods with evergreen conifers / ul>

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Because of its richness and location, many human settlements have settled in areas of temperate forest, so these have been exploited since pre-Hispanic times. Several of their animals have been displaced, some are almost on the verge of disappearance, such as bear, dormouse, wild boar, deer, ducks, crows, wildcats, among others.

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have warm summers and cold winters, with an average annual precipitation between 500 and 2000 mm, and temperatures that can vary between -30 ° C and 30 ° C with an average of 10 ° C. Snow is common in the northern part of the region but decreases in the southern end.

Dense vegetation cover and hot, humid summers allow maximum development of organic materials that form a well-developed layer of humus, usually in silty soils. The soil surface is dark brown and slightly acidic, with more reddish layers beneath resulting from the accumulation of iron oxides. This is a rich and fertile soil.

These forests are structurally complex; some of them support a great diversity of vegetal species which, in turn, provides both food resources and space for a great diversity of animals. Each major type of forest supports its own set of plant and animal species; forests with conifers support different faunas and floras than those of deciduos which increases diversity on a local basis. This zone presents the greatest diversity of some groups, especially insects, outside the tropics. The plant diversity of North America and East Asia is very large because they took refuge in tropical places during the glaciations; on the other hand, diversity in Europe is low as the Mediterranean prevented them from falling back before the arrival of glaciers.