RNA Structure

Председатель правительства РФ Владимир Путин принимает участие в заседании Межгоссовета ЕврАзЭС в Минске

Председатель правительства РФ Владимир Путин принимает участие в заседании Межгоссовета ЕврАзЭС в Минске

By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MD

RNA is a single molecule braided with a sugar ribose. It has a distinctive structure and, unlike DNA, there are variations and several types of RNA structures.

The basic RNA structure

However, the basic structure of RNA can to be defined as a ribose sugar, which is numbered from 1 'to 5', with: a base attached to the 1 'position; a hydroxyl group at the 2-position

A phosphate attached to the 3 'position of a ribose and the 5' position of the next

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and uracil (U). A base depends on the position of 1 ', usually adenine (A), which is the base of the nucleus. cytosine (C), guanine (G) or uracil (U).

Adenine and guanine are purines; cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines. Bases can form hydrogen bonds between cytosine and guanine, between adenine and uracil and between guanine and uracil.

Unlike DNA containing only four bases A, T, G and C, mature RNA can Pseudouridine (Ψ), in which the linkage between uracil and ribose is changed from a C-N bond to a C-C bond and ribothymidine (T), are found in many places. Another notable modified base is hypoxanthine, a deaminated adenine base whose nucleoside analogs are called inosine (I).

Hydroxyl group of RNA

There is a hydroxyl group in the position 2 'of the ribose sugar. This differentiates RNA from DNA and causes the RNA to adopt a geometry of a form rather than the B form most commonly observed in DNA. This means that there is a very deep and narrow groove and a shallow groove and smaller width.

A phosphate group is attached to the 3 'position of one ribose and the 5' position of the following.

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Phosphate groups have a negative charge. This makes the RNA a charged molecule (polyanion).

Tertiary Structure of RNA

Once the RNA is formed, how proteins require to undergo changes to form a tertiary structure specific. The scaffold for this structure is provided by secondary structural elements which are hydrogen bonds in the molecule. The filament forms hairpin loops, bundles and inner loops. RNA is already charged, metal ions such as Mg2 + are needed to stabilize many secondary and tertiary structures. RNA tertiary structures are determined using probing interference assignment and chemical modification, x-ray crystallography, and magnetic resonance imaging

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