PANAMENSIS AGRICULTURE

Casa Vives C. A

Casa Vives C. A

Eduardo A. Esquivel R.

Pineapple Gusosis or Fusarium, caused by Fusarium moliniforme sp. subglutinans is a disease reported in Panama for decades (Esquivel, 1982) but was not an important disease because the country is commercially grown the variety Cayenne Lisa, which is highly tolerant to the fungus. With the introduction, a decade ago, to the cultivation of the variety MD2 or "Golden Sweet", highly susceptible, throughout the Central American area this disease began to take importance. MD2 is a hybrid developed by the Hawaii Research Institute and the Del Monte Company, and since its release, its susceptibility to Fusarium has been known, but its excellent agronomic and fruit quality have made its cultivation popular. , 2012)

The genus Fusarium is one of the groups of pathogenic fungi more difficult to classify, due to its great morphological and pathogenic variation. Originally the pathogen causing the gomosis of the pineapple is classified as Fusarium moliniforme sp. subglutinans, imperfect state of Giberella fujikuroi. Later, more recently it was reclassified as Fusarium guttiforme Nirenberg & O'Donnell 1998. It is actually a species of Fusarium belonging to the group Liseola, which is characterized by having the perfect state of Giberella fujikuroi, and being pathogenic only to pineapple.

Recently in South Africa another species of Fusarium in Pineapple that can be confused with the Gomosis, by its similar symptoms: the Fusarium ananatum sp. nov (Jacobs, 2010)

In field conditions, a pineapple plant infected by Fusarium. guttiforme may show the following eternal symptoms: 1) Curvature of the stalk gravelly towards the ldo where the lesion is. 2) alterations in the phylotaxia of the plant, increasing the number of leaves per spiral. 3) alterations in the architecture of the plant that happens to have a funnel shape or cup. 4) reduction of the length of the leaves, as well as of the general development of the plant. 5) Opening the central rosette of the plant showing the newest leaves. 6) Chlorosis, 6) Death of the apical meristem.

Casa Vives C. A
Casa Vives C. A. @casavivesca

In the fruits, the symptoms appear as soft rot of the pulp, accumulation in the cavities of the ovaries and waxing through of the floral cavity of the infected fruit. The recommendations of the control of the fusarosis in pineapple consist basically in the implementation of the epiphytic integrated management of pests and diseases, which consists of the use of healthy "seed" eradication of diseased plants during the vegetative cycle and application of ef- ficiencies on developing inflorescences. On the other hand, the cultivation of tolerant evarieties is the only efficient and economical alternative as well as ecologically safe.

The Genetic Improvement of the Pineapple in Brazil, using materials from Lisa and Gold, have produced up to now the release of four commercial varieties tolerant to the disease: BRS Imperial, BRS Vitoria, BRS Ajuba produced by EMBRAPA, and IAC Fastastico, produced by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas.

In other countries Captafol (Captan) is used very successfully for seed treatment and spray application to inflorescences.

Esquivel, E.A . (1982) Catalog of facilities of the plants in the Republic of Panama.

Jacobs, A., Van Wick, P, Marasas, W. and Wingfield, B. (Fusarium ananatum sp. Nov. In the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from pineapples with fruit rot in South Africa, Fungal Biology, Vol. 114, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 515-527,

(Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) of the nursery (II) (2010) Phytosanitary v.14. n.4 City of Havana Oct.-Dec.

Pires de Matos, A. Junghans, D, and Spironello, A. ABACAXI VARIETIES RESISTANT TO FUSARIOSE, EMBRAPA,

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